Technology Enriched Language Teaching: SAMR Model as a Framework for Promoting Students' Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS)


SAMR is a model designed to check how integrating technology changes a learning task and it is expected to improve the learning experience. In late 2012, Dr. Ruben Puentedura’s SAMR model provides this framework for teachers designed to improve the integration of emerging technologies into their daily lessons. Moreover, SAMR is aimed to “…facilitate the acquisition of proficiency in modern consumer technologies and software for both staff and students with the hope of promoting 21st century skills…” (Cummings 2014).

The SAMR framework uses technology as a different task. As Kirkland (2014) states, “designing a rich learning task is a challenge for any teacher, and trying to synthesize the dynamic world of technology into the mix adds an extra element of risk and uncertainty.”. Additionally, This model work visually in a hierarchal fashion, is divided into four different tasks: Substitution, Augmentation, Modification, and Redefinition, which are grouped under two different areas, “Enhancement” and “Transformation”.

The tasks of Substitution and Augmentation are categorized as “Enhancement,” meaning they leverage technology to replace and/or improve existing tools in the learning task, while tasks of Modification and Redefinition are grouped as “Transformation,” meaning they provide new opportunities for learning that are not easily possible without the technology (Kirkland 2014).

Apart from that, the SAMR framework also promotes High Order Thinking Skills (HOTS). According to Suprapto (2017), the high order thinking skills is a thinking activity involving the high hierarchy cognitive level of Bloom Taxonomy. Bloom Taxonomy is comprised of six levels: recall, understand, apply, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Moreover, Anderson and Krathwohl (2001) revise the Bloom taxonomy as the following: remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating, and creating. In its development, remembering, understanding, applying are grouped as low order thinking skills. So, we can see how SAMR can help students promote their high order thinking skills in the classroom or outside the classroom (flipped classroom).

As technology increasingly enters the classroom, both in school-based equipment and in student-owned devices, SAMR provides one approach that allows me as the future teacher to consider how to integrate a technology to improve their instruction. In this paper, I will reflect how SAMR gave me some ideas in teaching English.

The first point of this model is substitution. It is the use of technology for a task that could be accomplished without technology. It means replacing a traditional learning task or resource with a technology based one. For example, we used to read a paper-based textbooks in the past, but now we can add computer-based textbooks or we usually called it as e-book. The way a learner interacts with the online textbook is going to be basically the same way they interact with the paper-based textbooks. There’s no change in the overall function of the resource, the textbooks, and the learning task. 

The second point of SAMR model is augmentation which provides a technological improvement for a task that could be completed without technology. We might augment an online textbook by incorporating multimedia in it, so it improves the function of the resource. We may include video links, online translators, dictionaries, digital images, and even interactive diagrams and charts, in which it would have been impossible by only relying on a paper-based textbook. Still, it hasn’t really changed the learning task.

The next part is modification. It allows for a pre-existing task to be significantly altered in a way not possible without technology. We may give students some media resources where they can obtain the information and ask them to select which information is important and build knowledge about the topic by themselves. They are doing more than just taking notes and being asked to recall the information later.

Finally, redefinition would be the creation of a completely new task not possible without the technology. We use technology to create a new learning task that would be impossible without the use of technology. Asking students to comment and review the various applications and resources we have given, analyze the provided information and then make their own interactive video presentation on a determined topic, is an example of how we can redefine the learning task of getting information about a topic.

In a nutshell, this framework gives me some ideas like the use of a text book can be utilized by applying the four points of this model in a different way based on High Order Thinking Skills (HOTS). Lastly, Kirkland (2014) explains, “The key to using the SAMR model is not to think of it as a progression to work through. Utilizing technology effectively means generating a variety of rich tasks that redesign traditional ways of learning and provide opportunities that would be impossible without the use of technology”. So, the existence of technology nowadays is to provide the teachers to enrich their teaching.

References

Anderson, O. W., & Krathwohl, D. R. (2001). Taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives. A Bridged Edition. New York: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.

Cummings, Charles. (2014). “Teacher Created Prescriptive Interactive Content (TCPIC), SAMR, and Modernizing Remediation in Social Science Education.” Journal of Social Studies Research Conference Proceedings: 37–39.

Kirkland, Anita Brooks. (2014). “Models for Technology Integration in the Learning Commons.” School Libraries in Canada 32, no. 1: 14–18.

Suprapto, E. (2017). The Application of Problem-Based Learning Strategy to Increase High Order Thinking Skills of Senior Vocational School Students. International Education Studies, 10(6), 123-129.

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