Individual and Situational Factors in Teaching and Educational Planning for Inclusive Classrooms


Shampa Roseline Rozario

Yadi Supriadi


Among the numerous factors that must be addressed in teaching, maximization of the setting for learning is significant in promoting student academic accomplishment. Within the educational setting, many factors may impact their academic success, ranging from personal to situational. In this essay, the authors hope to present a comprehensive overview of numerous individual and situational components that should be given priority in teaching. Additionally, the authors demonstrate the way these factors connect, demonstrating how these interactions should be considered by teachers when planning for classroom instruction. As stated earlier, the authors will only address several factors which impact the classroom environment.

Individual factors include a variety of unique characteristics and features that have a substantial impact on how students learn (Tang, 2022). Motivation, an essential part of student involvement, motivates students toward their educational goals. Their motivation level influences their determination, constant work, and total accomplishment (Brooks & Young, 2011). Additionally, prior experience functions as a scaffold for assimilating and synthesizing novel information. Variations in approaches to learning and mental capacities add to the multidimensional nature of the classroom environment. As an example, Halif et al. (2020) demonstrated that visual learners can succeed in situations with aids of visuals, but auditory students might benefit from spoken teaching. A combination of each of these distinct characteristics defines how students learn. It signifies the need for personalized methods of instruction.

Aside from individual characteristics, the situation in which learning occurs has a considerable impact on how children learn. The learning environment, as defined by its constructed surroundings, resources, and context (Artur, 2023). This aspect has a significant impact on learner engagement and academic attainment. Teacher-student relationships are particularly essential since they construct an awareness of belonging and enable learners to learn. Peer interactions also have a direct effect on social conditions in the learning environment, establishing participation and mental health (Roux, 2001). Additionally, Benjamin (2014) also explained that the availability and quality of educational materials are critical in facilitating effective studying and teaching methods. Acknowledging the effects of such circumstances illustrates the significance of creating caring, inviting environments for learning.

As stated by Rafinda et al. (2020), the interaction of individual and situational factors is constantly changing. This essay discusses specifically on how these variables interact with one another. The writers also provide several previous studies to support their claims. Furthermore, the authors elaborate more on how to provide positive experiences of learning for every learner.  By writing this essay, the writers expect that teachers have to carefully evaluate both individual and situational factors while creating lessons. Teachers may adjust their methods of instruction to fit different learning styles, skills, and motivations by addressing each student's particular needs and experiences. Furthermore, bringing a positive and welcoming atmosphere into the classroom promotes an awareness of connection and active engagement. Adopting this comprehensive strategy allows instructors to build an interactive classroom in which learners may achieve their highest possible achievement

Individual Factors

Understanding individual factors in teaching is the key component for the student learning process. There are several factors that contribute to students’ success in learning. The first factor is cognitive abilities. Kirschner and Bruyckere (2017) defined cognitive ability as how individuals process knowledge. Cognitive abilities affect how learners process basic facts and develop deeper concepts. Learners who are intellectually developed outperform learners who grapple with challenging material. For example, research on children's story comprehension capacities conducted by Lepola et al. (2022) demonstrated how cognitive capacity affects the level of verbal participation among children in dialogic reading practices. The research applied State Space Grids (SSGs) to simulate children's patterns of engagement among various story groups, emphasizing the significance of cognitive capacity on how children interact in discussions. Children who had strong story understanding surpassed those with moderate and inadequate understanding about overall verbal engagement duration.

Another important factor is learning styles. This factor is characterized as a person's favored method of acquiring knowledge, which includes specific mental, emotional, and behavioral traits (Halif et al., 2020). An effective environment for learning must reflect individuals' various approaches to learning. Learning styles are frequently related to the notion that students possess particular preferences concerning the way they learn and deal with knowledge. For instance, Salo et al. (2022) investigated socio-motivational and reading comprehension skills among at-risk students in elementary school. Cognitive risk factors were addressed through decoding abilities and reading comprehension, stressing the importance of proficiency in reading, and personalized scaffolding for assisting at-risk learners.

The next factor that affects learning is motivation. It can be described as a mental state that stimulates and leads actions, which includes aspects such as accomplishment, acknowledgment, and interactions with others (Halif et al., 2020). This factor in the learning environment encourages students to interact with the subject matter. Students are inclined to engage fully, concentrate, and maintain their focus on the activity when they are mentally encouraged. According to Salo et al. (2022), depending on the situation and environment, motivational tendencies are considered to be dynamic and interactionist.

Moreover, prior knowledge is also frequently used as the foundation for new information in learning. Connecting new material to what students already know helps students comprehend and retain it. In their study, De Jong et al. (2023) stated that prior knowledge is a key component in effective inquiry-based learning because students benefit from being accustomed to the subject matter before participating in inquiry practices. To promote deep understanding, foundational knowledge about a topic should be presented before going into more advanced domains. Students who possess less prior understanding gain more through feedback during the research process, stressing the varying impact of instruction based on students' commencing knowledge levels. Students with low achievement levels might benefit most from inquiry-based techniques, which can lead to increased learning outcomes in the long run.

Personality traits are also significant. It is defined as patterns of emotions, thoughts, and actions that describe a person's distinct behavioral profile (Nauzeer & Jaunky, 2021). Personal traits have major implications in the learning environment because this aspect affects an individual's approaches to tasks, responses to information, and reactions to challenges. Moreover, in Nauzeer & Jaunky’s meta-analysis study, (2021) found that personality traits, motivation, and learning are all interrelated factors that affect academic achievement. Motivation serves as an influence that stimulates, guides and maintains behavior toward academic success. Personal characteristics and motivation affect the process of learning, determining how people gain, maintain, and use knowledge. Personality traits such as conscientiousness and openness may affect an individual's motivation to participate in activities that promote learning.

Finally, another important aspect is psychological support. This component must be promoted by teachers and students. It is essential for creating an inviting classroom atmosphere and supporting learners' psychological health. According to study findings, children who experience being psychologically empowered by their instructors are more inclined to participate in studying, demonstrate positive conduct, and build resilience in dealing with adversity (Allen et al., 2013; Jennings & Greenberg, 2009). Instructors provide an appropriate environment for children to talk about themselves and ask for support when necessary by recognizing their particular feelings and developing trusting relationships (Roorda et al., 2011).

Situational Factors

Apart from individual factors, the situational aspect also provides an important element to consider which can affect the student learning process. Initially, the learning environment is a general condition where teachers often consider this aspect in the first place. Commonly, the learning environment is defined as the context where pedagogical practices occur (O’Hara et al., 2022). The physical environment in which learning occurs has significant effects on how students learn. Lighting, background noise, positioning of seats, and layout of the classroom may promote or impede learning. Kulawiak (2021) provides evidence that classroom noise can affect students' thinking and studying.

Additionally, learning resources are a part of considerable situational aspects in the learning process. It consists of several tools used in the teaching process including tutorials, books, or devices. These resources assist students in navigating challenging subjects and staying motivated when dealing with difficulties. Similarly, Brown et al. (1996) defined learning resources as any tools used by students to assist them with their understanding of a subject. In one notable study, Benjamin (2014) identified that it is imperative to reinforce students' knowledge of the different topics by incorporating a variety of learning resources, such as audiovisual materials, textual descriptions, and electronic instructional media.

Another vital element in the learning process is social dynamics. The relationships and behaviors between students, instructors, and other individuals in the academic setting influence the learning processes. Healthy interpersonal connections, collaboration among peers, and fostering interactions between teachers and students help create an effective learning environment. Salo & Kajamies (2024) elaborated more this concept in their study on teachers’ readiness to deal with various situations that influence students’ well-being, stating that teacher candidates felt they were best equipped to notice collaboration among peers issues and react to cases of bullying, showing a consciousness of social factors which influence children's mental health.

A further consideration needs to be addressed in student learning is instructional strategies. It is an approach that instructors utilize to help students attain their academic goals in an area of study (Crawford, 2019). This aspect provides an approach on how teachers efficiently deliver curriculum and engage learners through profound learning processes. As an example, (Jiang et al., 2019) present this concept on controlling and autonomy supportive teaching in the classroom. Moreover, they explained that autonomy-supportive approaches include encouraging autonomy among learners, error acceptance, and imagination to promote learning, which were identified as unique results of the investigation. 

The next situational factors are feedback and assessment. These aspects are fundamental in a learning environment as it demonstrates the students’ academic progress. Moreover, it helps teachers to observe several areas that still need some improvements. In one notable study by Jónsson et al. (2018), suggested that the educational practices should focus on developing a formative evaluation environment to improve interaction and comprehension among students and instructors, eventually leading to better results in learning.

Equally, cultural context needs to be noted. Each social actor, particularly in education, is always attached to their cultural background. Thomas et al. (2011) defines cultural context as the ‘personal attributes’ of an individual. Moreover, individuals' perceptions and engagement in learning activities are influenced by their cultural experiences, opinions, principles, and standards. Understanding and valuing various cultures may enhance student achievement and foster inclusiveness. In particular, Kunioshi et al. (2019) stated that cultural variations in distance of power and domain reliance show a substantial impact on methods of instruction in science and engineering education, as proven by an examination of lecture excerpts from institutions in the US and Japan.

Interaction of Individual and Situational Factors

  • Interaction of Motivation and Learning Environment

Individual and situational elements, including motivation and the context for learning, collaborate to influence students' participation, contentment, and achievement in school. Motivation refers to an emotional state that drives initiatives. it is important to the way learners relate to their academic context (Halif et al., 2020). As an example, an individual's innate passion for an area such as biology functions as a personal motivator, increasing their involvement with the subject matter (Halif et al., 2020). Nevertheless, contextual elements in the learning environment may boost or decrease motivation (O’Hara et al., 2022).

Assume a learning environment in which a learner is extremely eager to acquire knowledge of biology. The student's interest is going to be increased if the instructor uses engaging instructional resources, promotes student involvement, and offers a positive and courteous setting for learning (Salo et al., 2022). Salo et al. (2022) pointed out the critical role of socio-motivational factors as prosocial conduct and intrinsic motivation to enhance student involvement and academic achievement. On the contrary, if the learning setting lacks materials, the instructor's method is disinterested, or interactions with peers are disliked, the motivation of students might decline regardless of their early excitement in the topic (Kulawiak, 2021).

Furthermore, the qualities of the classroom environment have a major impact on students' academic experiences and final results (O’Hara et al., 2022). The lighting, background noise, classroom structure, and teaching methods may assist or hinder learning (Kulawiak, 2021). Classroom disturbances, for instance, may cause an impact on students' focus and academic performance, having headphones that block noise gives a viable option to reduce interruptions, mainly for learners with sensory issues (Kulawiak, 2021). Furthermore, certain features of the learning setting, including engagement and personal relevance, improve student achievement, whereas extensive research on autonomy may produce the opposite impact (Malik & Rizvi, 2018).

Nonetheless, De Jong et al. (2023) believe that mixing various instructional techniques can result in a harmonious educational environment that corresponds to learners' varied preferences and needs. Teachers can construct an atmosphere for learning that adapts to varied student interests while also encouraging complete growth through incorporating Inquiry-based techniques with some traditional techniques. Overall, the relationship of motivation, learning environment, and approaches to instruction produces a major impact on student involvement and performance in school. Teachers have to take these aspects into account when developing classroom environments to maximize the learning results for students while establishing an encouraging and stimulating atmosphere for learning. Teachers may enhance the students' involvement and performance in school by boosting intrinsic motivation, regulating social-motivational factors, and establishing favorable environments for learning.

  • Interaction of Prior Knowledge and Instructional Strategies

Individual and situational aspects, which include preexisting knowledge and teaching methods, interconnect in multiple ways to influence the experience of students and achievements. Teaching methods play an essential role in helping learners achieve their academic objectives (Crawford, 2019). Jiang and others (2019) discussed the differences between controlling and autonomy-supportive teaching styles, focusing on the way these methods affect learner motivation and participation. Autonomy-supportive methods, such as encouraging student independence and accepting inaccuracies create an atmosphere for learning favorable for improving comprehension and creativity (Jiang et al., 2019). Controlling approaches, on the contrary, provide both internal and external force to learners through unambiguous commands, controlling language, and ego involvement, potentially influencing their interests and actions (Jiang et al., 2019). To improve academic progress and mental health, teachers need to carefully evaluate their methods of instruction, mixing autonomy assistance with controlled instruction (Jiang et al., 2019).

Furthermore, De Jong et al. (2023) show the necessity of matching teaching methods with particular goals of learning to improve student academic outcomes. Direct instruction helps gain basic comprehension, whereas inquiry-based approaches provide a more comprehensive and more adaptable understanding of topics (De Jong et al., 2023). Tailoring instructional assistance within inquiry-based instruction to student attributes including reading comprehension and cognitive skills enables focused help and enhanced student performance (De Jong et al., 2023). For example, learners who are less proficient in specific topics might profit from short periods of direct instruction to improve their schoolwork (De Jong et al., 2023). Consequently, comprehensive educational planning depends on choosing suitable methods that correspond with targeted learning goals and address individuals' different needs (De Jong et al., 2023).

Prior knowledge offers a basis for combining new information and promoting learning (De Jong et al., 2023). Linking novel information to prior experience improves learners' comprehension and recall (De Jong et al., 2023). Baek et al. (2015) highlight that earlier understanding in game-based learning situations, where varied amounts of prior knowledge lead to different kinds of achievement. Students having a substantial amount of prior knowledge have enhanced problem-solving skills and comprehension levels in multiple courses (Baek et al., 2015). Furthermore, prior knowledge affects students' achievement and interest in the classroom, as illustrated by Gupta and Zheng (2020), who discovered that the efficacy of methods of instruction differed according to their previous understanding levels.

In short, individual and situational factors like preexisting knowledge and methods of instruction determine the experiences of learners and outputs. When implementing instructional methodologies, teachers must think about students' existing knowledge levels to determine how to maximize the learning results and establish an environment that promotes learning. Teachers can develop engaging and efficient learning environments for each student by identifying teaching strategies with particular goals for learning while simultaneously taking into account their unique traits

  • Interaction of Emotional State and Feedback

Students' emotional states and feedback from instructors connect in a variety of instructional conditions, influencing the level of connections and learning results. Teachers' psychological assistance is critical for structuring the learning processes and developing socio-motivational competencies (Kajamies et al., 2016). For example, in childcare environments, emotional support creates excellent scaffolding, allowing children to participate, explore, and acquire knowledge (Kajamies et al., 2016). The ability of teachers to convey empathy, motivate, and deliver useful feedback affects students' mental health and willingness to study.

In the context of prolonged treatments with at-risk young learners, emotional assistance in teacher-dyad and dyadic interactions has an important effect on students' socio-motivational and reading comprehension abilities (Salo et al., 2022). Teachers who provide emotional assistance for children through encouraging feedback, engaged listening, and appreciation of how they work help foster their interpersonal abilities and academic participation (Salo et al., 2022). On the contrary, the absence of psychological assistance or poor feedback may lead to lower motivation, disinterest, and poor performance in school among at-risk students (Salo et al., 2022).

Furthermore, emotions among learners affect the efficacy of feedback interactions. In dialogue-based reading environments, where instructors involve students in collaborative storytelling, the teacher's emotional climate and method of teaching have a substantial impact on their chances of engagement and understanding (Lepola et al., 2022). Strong emotional relationships, defined by affection, passion, and support, foster an atmosphere in which students may take part in dialogues and increase their knowledge of stories (Lepola et al., 2022). Negative emotional emotions, such as displeasure or worry, can impede the ability of learners to fully engage with and understand the subject (Lepola et al., 2022).

In conclusion, the psychological well-being of both students and teachers has a substantial impact on the success of feedback interactions in a variety of academic contexts. Strong emotional assistance from instructors improves learners' socio-emotional well-being, motivation, and performance in school, but poor relationships with others can hamper performance. Building emotionally welcoming situations for learning and offering helpful advice based on students' emotional needs are vital to fostering positive academic experiences and improving results from learning.

  • Interaction of Cognitive Abilities and Learning Environment

The relationship between learners' intellectual abilities and the learning setting plays an integral role when evaluating the efficacy of instructional strategies and results. Kirschner and De Bruyckere (2017) clarified misunderstandings about the terms "digital native" and "multitasker," demonstrating the value of taking learners' cognitive capacities into account when developing learning environments. They claimed all kids have intrinsic digital capabilities ignoring the range of intellectual skills across students. Recognizing these cognitive distinctions is important for designing efficient instructional methods that fit the demands of each student.

De Jong et al. (2023) propose an integrated approach that includes both inquiry-based and direct teaching approaches, while also taking into account individuals' various cognitive characteristics. While several students develop in inquiry-based classrooms that promote learning by doing, others might thrive from organized, teacher-led learning. Combining these methods allows instructors to create an adaptable classroom that supports individuals' diverse cognitive talents and interests. 

Furthermore, Salo et al. (2022) place emphasis on the function of a classroom setting in promoting socio-motivational and reading comprehension skills, especially among at-risk young students. An encouraging and suitable atmosphere may improve students' intellectual curiosity and assist with their acquisition of important competencies. Psychological support, teacher-student relationships, and classroom atmosphere are all helping foster a supportive learning environment. 

In the classroom, teachers' methods of instruction connect to learners' intellectual skills, affecting participation and academic results. Jiang et al. (2019) show how autonomy-supportive and controlling teaching methods affect learners' cognitive involvement differentially. Students with greater cognitive capacities who develop in autonomous educational contexts might gain more from autonomy-supportive strategies that educate them and foster self-regulation. On the other hand, controlling teaching approaches, which are characterized by rigid instruction and restricted independence, could impede the cognitive growth of learners who need greater independence and adaptability in the learning processes.

Moreover, teacher candidates' capacity to deal with a variety of scenarios impacting students' well-being affects their awareness of intellectual skills and the atmosphere of learning (Salo & Kajamies, 2024). Successful teachers are prepared to establish inclusive classrooms that meet the intellectual needs of every student, enabling equal access to learning chances and fostering favorable academic achievements.

In essence, the relationship between students' cognitive ability and the learning environment demonstrates the necessity of utilizing adaptable methods of instruction that address varied students' conditions. Understanding and adapting these variations enables teachers to develop welcoming and encouraging classrooms that enhance intellectual involvement and foster positive learning results for every student.

  • Interaction of Social Dynamics and Motivation

Social dynamics and student motivation are inseparably connected in a wide range of circumstances, determining participation and learning results. Kirschner and De Bruyckere (2017) refute the myths of the digital native and multitasker, demonstrating the essence of comprehending learners' social dynamics in online instruction contexts. They claim that believing that every learner has natural digital abilities ignores the impact of social variables like relationships with peers and backgrounds in culture on how motivated learners are to interact with technology-mediated instruction.

De Jong et al. (2023) suggested adopting a combination of inquiry-based and direct instruction approaches, considering that developing students' motivation and learning outcomes is vital. While inquiry-based learning strategies encourage teamwork and group engagement, instructor-led methods offer organization and monitoring from instructors. By combining these strategies, teachers may develop classrooms that promote positive relationships while enabling students to take part in their learning experience.


Furthermore, Salo et al. (2022) also point out the role of socio-motivational factors in improving reading comprehension abilities among at-risk young learners. Healthy relationships between instructors and learners, along with emotional support within teacher-dyads and dyadic interactions, serve to establish an emotionally supportive social atmosphere that boosts the interest of students in their studies. These results underline the essential value of interpersonal relationships in building students' motivation and positive academic performance.

Teacher activities in the learning environment have an effect on student motivation and social dynamics. Jiang et al. (2019) investigate the effects of autonomy-supportive and regulating teaching strategies on motivation among learners. Autonomy-supportive practices, which involve instructor support and reinforcement of student autonomy, promote positive relationships and increase the involvement of students. On the contrary, controlled teaching approaches characterized by direct instruction and restricted independence could hinder students' intrinsic motivation and impede positive interpersonal interactions.

Further, teacher candidates' ability to deal with a variety of circumstances impacts the mental health of students indicating their comprehension of interpersonal relationships and motivation (Salo & Kajamies, 2024). Professional teachers can build welcoming classrooms that foster inviting interactions with others and encourage learners to take part actively throughout the process of learning. By creating an empowering interpersonal atmosphere, teachers may boost learners' intrinsic motivation and improve their academic outcomes.


In brief, the association between social dynamics and student motivation reinforces that encouraging positive peer interactions and intrinsic motivation are essential to consider. Identifying these patterns allows teachers to build appealing and inspiring environments for learning that promote student academic results.

  • Interaction of Feedback and Prior Knowledge

Feedback and prior knowledge relate interactively in the classroom. These aspects affect both teaching methods and the results of learners. Feedback is an essential instrument for monitoring academic performance and finding possibilities for enhancement (Jónsson et al., 2018). It creates a positive learning atmosphere that promotes communication and understanding between learners and teachers, which leads to better student achievement (Jónsson et al., 2018; Salo & Kajamies, 2024). Despite this, the usefulness of feedback is dependent on learners' prior experience, as noted by De Jong et al. (2023). Pedagogical design principles illustrate the value of learners' commencing understanding of inquiry-based learning. It implies that fundamental concepts should come before complex topics (De Jong et al., 2023).

Additionally, incorporating individuals' prior experiences into teaching practices can develop autonomy-supportive classrooms (O'Shea & Salzer, 2020). Instructors should acknowledge and expand on what learners already know as a means to improve their academic performance and mental health. It is consistent with De Jong et al.'s (2023) statement that inquiry-based instruction is most efficient when learners have the relevant prior understanding and ability to inquire. To promote effective inquiry-based instructional opportunities, feedback must not only evaluate the progress of students but also remediate any deficiencies in prior understanding and ability to investigate (De Jong et al., 2023).

Jiang et al. (2019) also explored the multifaceted nature of instructor's use of autonomy-supportive and controlling teaching styles. Instructors utilize a mix of autonomy-supportive and controlling approaches inside the identical instructional sequence, subject to contextual variables including their duties as teachers and prior teaching experience (Jiang et al., 2019). It indicates the significance of taking the context into consideration when understanding instructor conduct and creating methods of instruction that correspond to the varied needs of learners (Jiang et al., 2019).

Added to that, teachers' views about mistakes made by students and instructional development correlate with autonomy-supportive actions (Jiang et al., 2019). Instructors with demonstrated tolerance for errors and creative thinking build an encouraging atmosphere for learning in which learners see errors as opportunities for growth and become interested in acquiring knowledge (Jiang et al., 2019). Incorporating these aspects into teaching approaches can increase the independence of learners and involvement in learning.


On the whole, feedback, prior knowledge, and teachers' methods of instruction engage in multiple manners that affect the classroom context and the outcomes of learners. Teachers may establish equitable and successful classrooms that encourage the progress of students and their psychological well-being by utilizing their existing knowledge, offering individualized feedback, and implementing autonomy-supportive methods of instruction.

Integrating Individual and Situational Factors in Educational Planning

Scaffolding in education is the assistance offered by instructors and other trained peers to assist students with finding a balance between their present skills and the objectives of learning (Wood, Bruner, & Ross, 1976). Effective scaffolding is giving learners sufficient support to finish assignments that they are not able to complete themselves, while simultaneously allowing students to demonstrate responsibility for their studies and build abilities to solve problems (Jang et al., 2010). This idea is backed by Kajamies (2017), who maintains that effective scaffolding of poor individuals' knowledge needs a mix of interconnected, changing, and multidomain viewpoints. Individual and situational factors determine the amount and type of reinforcement required to assist learners in understanding (Schunk & Ertmer, 2000). As an example, an individual lacking prior experience might need additional support and instruction than a learner with a deeper understanding of the topic (Jang et al., 2010). Kajamies (2017) points out that understanding scaffolding's fluid and multi-domain character is fundamental. Furthermore, the researcher notes that scaffolding ideas should adjust to students' changing needs and settings. The following are just some methods that were proposed for instructors to include individual and situational variables in their instructional strategies.

Individual needs assessment is a comprehensive procedure that seeks to comprehend every student's distinctive traits and academic needs. Teachers use formative evaluation methods including inquiry, observations, and tests to continually collect feedback on their students' development (De Jong et al., 2023). Periodic evaluation supports instructional choices and pinpoints spots where learners might require additional assistance or reinforcement. Monitoring learners' actions and relationships offers useful information about their academic interests and obstacles (Salo et al., 2024). Instructors may adapt training for specific demands by monitoring how learners communicate with peers and complete assignments for learning.

Dialogue and interaction are essential when evaluating preferences, helping instructors establish a relationship with learners and acquire an understanding of their motivations and objectives (Salo et al., 2024). Participating in important discussions with learners allows instructors to more fully comprehend their viewpoints and situations, which informs pedagogical strategies and choices. Learning method assessments offer a systematic technique to determine the ways that students learn best, like kinesthetic, auditory, visual, or tactile (Kirschner & De Bruyckere, 2017). By understanding the preferences of learners, instructors may adjust training according to various instructional methods and improve participation.

Diagnostic evaluations provide an organized method to assess learners' prior experience, abilities, and comprehension at the commencement of the course (De Jong et al., 2023). These evaluations assist instructors in identifying students' abilities and shortcomings, and they also pinpoint opportunities for correction. Cultural and socio-emotional components are particularly important when analyzing preferences (Salo et al., 2024). Recognizing individuals' cultural origins, social-emotional growth, and mental health helps instructors build welcoming and encouraging spaces for learning. Instructors might create instructional materials that support complete student growth and optimize results in learning by considering their academic and socio-emotional standards.

Once specific needs are recognized, instructors may develop lessons that incorporate various approaches to learning and skills. It might entail varying knowledge through giving a variety of academic resources, creating multiple learning directions, and tailoring methods of instruction to the needs of learners (De Jong et al., 2023). For instance, visual aids, physical activity, and sharing of knowledge may be utilized to suit various types of learning.

Instructors perform a substantial part in providing an inviting and comfortable atmosphere for learning that encourages student participation and mental health. It includes setting precise standards, fostering an atmosphere of belonging, and developing an enjoyable learning environment (Salo et al., 2024). Encouraging ethical conduct, valuing inclusion, and using restorative techniques may all assist in developing an environment that promotes learning.

While recognizing the constraints of the digital native fallacy (Kirschner & De Bruyckere, 2017), instructors can use technology for better student achievement. Implementing technology into the classroom, including whiteboards, mobile apps, and internet-based materials, may assist with enhancing classroom instruction and increase the involvement of students (Kirschner & De Bruyckere, 2017). Aside from that, continuous professional growth is indispensable for instructors to remain informed on proven methods and methods of instruction. Training sessions, seminars, and interactive learning environments may assist instructors in improving their ability to teach and academic understanding (Salo et al., 2024).

Ultimately, instructors should remain adaptable and willing to change while making plans for teaching and learning. It also involves responding to learners' changing needs, changing plans for instruction whenever necessary, and collecting suggestions from learners for better teaching techniques (Lepola et al., 2022). Moreover, by implementing these procedures and applying findings from studies, instructors can effectively establish and manage learning and instructional settings to improve the academic performance of learners and also nurture their academic satisfaction.


Overall, targeting these individual and situational factors, teachers may construct an encouraging and efficient atmosphere for learning that meets every student's distinctive necessities, thus contributing to their academic performance and personal improvement. Moreover, understanding how these two factors interact builds an insight on how to create a more favorable atmosphere for learning that promotes academic achievement while maintaining inclusiveness and participation. It is important to consider that individual and situational elements in instructional design can develop successful and welcoming classrooms. Teaching planning must be fluid, flexible, and student-oriented, with an in-depth understanding of each student's needs and situational elements. Teachers may offer engaging learning opportunities that enable learners to succeed both intellectually and emotionally by applying an integrated approach that incorporates every student's needs and circumstances.


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